Larvicidal potency of Dioscorea sansibarensis leaf extract against vector mosquitoes: Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus
Keywords:Dioscorea sansibarensis, vectors, mosquitoes, Zanzibar yams, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Mosquitoes are responsible for transmission of illnesses of public health importance including malaria, lymphatic filariasis, dengue, chikungunya, and many other diseases caused by viruses. Vector control using synthetic insecticides has been the cornerstone for management of vector-borne diseases. However, the chemical based interventions have not been sustainable due to emergency of resistance against insecticides among disease vectors. Plant based mosquitocidal products can be potential alternative tools in vector control. Therefore, the present study aimed at exploring the larvicidal properties of Dioscorea sansibarensis leaf extract against malaria and lymphatic filariasis vectors; Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvicidal activities of Dioscorea sansibarensis were assessed following WHO test procedures. Ethanol leaf extract of Dioscorea sansibarensis was evaluated against all the four instar larvae stages of An. gambiae s.s and Cx. quinquefasciatus susceptible laboratory colonies. The highest larvicidal potency was shown against the 4th instar stages of both species with the LC50 values of 60.915 ppm and 80.700 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.s., respectively. The respective LC95 values for Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.s. were 168.898 ppm and 249.295 ppm. This implies that the extract can be applied as mosquito larvicide should its impact on non-targeted species be established.
Keywords: Dioscorea sansibarensis; vectors, mosquitoes, Zanzibar yams, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.