Serological Analyses of Human Brucellosis in Ngara and Kibondo Districts, Tanzania
Keywords:brucellosis, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, serum
Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease transmitted by Brucella species, is transmitted to humans from infected animals through handling dairy products like milk, blood, and semen. Although some human communities in Tanzania live close to livestock, the status of human brucellosis in Ngara and Kibondo Districts in Kagera and Kigoma regions, respectively, is poorly understood. As such, the present study aimed to investigate the status of human brucellosis in north-western Tanzania, particularly Ngara and Kibondo Districts, where the risk of contracting zoonotic diseases, including brucellosis, is high due to the abundance of livestock. Among the screened sera (n = 450), the prevalence was 13.11% with an incidence rate of 6.22% in 581,378 population size intimating that the risk is alarming. Brucellosis patients admitted in dispensaries and other lower health facilities ranged from 6% to 26%, while those admitted in hospitals ranged from 4% to 14% indicating that communities prefer primary health facilities to hospitals when they show symptoms of brucellosis. The present study has also revealed that communities engaged in slaughtering, milking, skinning and helpers during births of livestock are at high risk of acquiring Brucella spp. because the odds ratios’ of these activities range between 1.583 and 8.400. Therefore, awareness and education should be enhanced by veterinary officers and associated stakeholders. A comprehensive study of brucellosis using molecular techniques to reveal species-specific in north-western Tanzania is highly recommended.
Keywords: brucellosis, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, serum.