Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the properties of room-temperature oxygenated DC sputtered zinc thin films for CZTS solar cells application
Keywords:Sputtering, Rapid thermal annealing, Zinc oxide, Structural, Opt-electrical
This work investigated the potential to achieve zinc oxide (ZnO) films for Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells window layer at controlled annealing conditions as a potential approach to address elemental inter-diffusion in CZTS solar cells. This involved rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of room-temperature oxygenated DC sputtered zinc thin films in an ambient of nitrogen gas at different temperatures. Structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of these films were determined by X-ray diffractometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrophotometer, and Hall Effect measurement, respectively. ZnO phases were observed after annealing the films over 150 °C. The films’ grains sizes improved with increasing RTA temperature. An exponential decrease in these films’ resistivity was observed with increasing RTA temperature attaining the lowest value at 300 °C. The bandgap and average solar transmittance of the films increased with increasing RTA temperature achieving values that are potential for applications in CZTS solar cells window layer at RTA temperatures beyond 200 °C.
Keywords: Sputtering; Rapid thermal annealing; Zinc oxide; Structural; Opt-electrical.