Quantifying the Strength of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole in Influencing the OND Rainfall Season in Tanzania
Keywords:OND Rainfall,, Bimodal Rainfall Region, ENSO, IOD, Tanzania
The current paper examines the strength of variability between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in influencing October to December (OND) rainfall over the bimodal rainfall regime of Tanzania. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF), correlation analysis, and composite analysis were used during the data analysis. The results show more rainfall distribution over the western part of the Lake Victoria basin and to the peripheral of the northern coast of the country, thus suggesting that, during the OND rainfall season, the onset starts in the western part of the Lake Victoria basin, then spreads to the rest of the areas under investigation as the season progresses. Furthermore, on the spatial scale, the findings revealed that there is a strong correlation between IOD and ENSO indices and OND rains in the northeastern highlands. Furthermore, a robust temporal correlation is revealed between the mean OND rains over the bimodal rainfall areas and IOD (r = 0.70) compared to ENSO (r = 0.62). The anomalous warming over the western Indian Ocean (positive IOD) has a faster response to OND rains over the bimodal rainfall regime of Tanzania compared to the remote influence induced by anomalous warming from the central equatorial Pacific Ocean (warm phase of ENSO). Meanwhile, dry years are associated with negative IOD and the cold phase of ENSO conditions. The findings offer valuable insights on strategies for mitigating the effects associated with extreme weather events and improving resilience in Tanzania.