Population Genetic Structure and Demographic History of Opsaridium microcephulum along Lake Nyasa
Keywords:Lake Nyasa, genetic diversity, demographic history, population genetics structure and effective population size
The Sanjika, Opsaridium microcephalum is among the fish species that serve as a major source of proteins and income to people along Lake Nyasa. However, the information on its genetic diversity and structure particularly in the Tanzania part of the Lake is limited. Therefore, the assessment of the genetic diversity and structure of O.microcephalum along the Lake Nyasa part of Tanzania was conducted in the current study using a fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene from 92 individuals of O. microcephalum. The findings showed that an average haplotype diversity and average nucleotide diversity were 0.8065 ± 0.0314 and 0.002380 ± 0.001640, respectively. The molecular Variance (AMOVA) indicated significant genetic variations among the subpopulations studied (Overall Φst = 0.31560, p < 0.001). The lowest haplotype diversity was recorded at Manda and the highest haplotype diversity was recorded at Buloma. The lowest nucleotide diversity was recorded at Manda and the highest was recorded at Lupingu. The differences in genetic diversity can be a possible indicator of different localised evolutionary forces that require attention to conservationists for the sustainable management of O. microcephalum.